This portion contains a word unique in the Bible: va-yityaledu. [root letters: yod-lamed-dalet]. Numbers 1:18Everett Fox’s translation, which uses inventive compounds to convey Hebew meanings into English, renders this” declared-their-lineage” (The Five Books of Moses, Schocken). The Stone (Artscroll) Chumash says, “established their genealogies.”Robert Alter notes: “The unusual Hebrew verb, a reflexive form of the root that means ‘to give birth,’ is interpreted by Rashi, and confirmed by modern scholarship to have the sense of sorting out birth lines or pedigrees.” (page 685)
The Torah: A Women’s Commentary says, “The self-reflexive nature of the verb here almost suggests that this army gave birth to itself.” (page 793)
When the census is taken, Israelites are told to count “le-gulgelotam” — by their skulls. My concordance lists 12 citations for “gulgulet” [gimmel-lamed-gimmel-tav], four of which are in the book of Numbers, three in Chronicles I, two in Exodus and one in Kings I. Several of the usages refer to the body part that would ordinarily be rendered “skull” in English; most, however, have this census-related meaning of counting persons.